Christenson, S. L., Reschly, A. L., Appleton, J. J., Berman, S., Spanjers, D., & Varro, P. (2008). Best Practices in Fostering Student Engagement. Best practices in school psychology, 5, 1099-1120.

(Lu jusqu’à 1104)


Our premise is that viewing engagement as composed of 4 subtypes provides an ideal heuristic to chieve an assessment-to-intervention link and to design data-based interventions that maximize the goodness of the person-environment fit. We srmise that effective interventions must account for more than attendance and academic skills. Rather, indicators of students’ comitment to learning, perception of academic and social competence, and sense of belonging must also be considered.

Définition du concept d’engagement

« Engagement is generally conceptualized as multidimensional construct, involving aspects of students’ behavior, cognition, and affect » p. 1000

« Finally, the relationship between two central educational constructs – motivation ans engagement – is not well understood (Appleton et al., 2006) but initial distinctions have been made (Russell et al., 2005). » p. 1104

Dimensions associées à l’engagement

  • Academic and behavorial engagement refer to externally observable indicators,
    • where time on task ans accrual of credits, for example, exemplify academic engagement
    • and attendance suspensions, ans classroom participation, for example, characterized behavorial engagement
  • Cognitive and psychological engagement refer to internal indicators,
    • where processing academic information, perceived relevance of schoolwork, goal setting, and being able to self-regulate performance toward a goal exemplify cognitive engagement
    • and where identification with school and belonging characterize psychological engagement

Indicateurs de l’engagement

Indicators convey a student’s degree or level of connection with school and learning, such as attendance patterns, accrual of credits, ans problem behavior. Facilitators of engagement are those contextual factors that influence strength of the connection, such as school discipline practices, parental supervision of homework completion, ans peer attitudes toward academic accomplishment. Facilitators ef engagement have implications for intervention practice and policies, while indicators can be used to guide identification procedures – initiating referrals at the first signs of withdrawal – as well as to direct the progress monitoring of individual students and programs. p. 1103

  • Academic engagement : credits earned, homework completion, time on task.
  • Behavorial engagement : attendance, suspensions, participation in classroom, participation in extracurricular activities, general physical and emotional behavior (drug use, sexual behavior)
  • Cognitive engagement :
  • Psychological engagement :

Concepts associés à l’engagement

« Student engagement has been discussed as a unifying construct for many separate lines of research, such as belonging, behavioral participation, and motivation (Fredericks et al., 2004) » p. 1100

It is clear that engagement is the primary theoretical model for understanding dropout and is quite frankly, the bottom line in interventions to promote school completion.

Student engagement has emerged as the cornerstone of hight school reform initiatives. The NRC (2004) concluded that student engagement is represented by the student belief of :

  • I can – perceptions of competence and control
  • I want to – personal values and goals
  • I belong – social connectedness to peers and teachers

Best Practices in Fostering Student Engagement_Table1


« However, as we implemented Check & Connect, 2 factors stood out :

  1. First, engagement for students at high risk of educational failure was much « more than » academic (e.g., time on task) or behavioral (e.g., attendance, participation) engagement. Data collected from intervention staff and students suggested the critical importance of student’s sense of belonging and perceptions of the relevance of school work to student’s future endeavors.
  2. Second, it was clear to intervention staff that school and family contextual variables enhanced or inhibited the effectiveness of Check & Connect. » p. 1102

Description de la recherche

Présentation d’un modèle: Engagement os not conceptualisez as an attribute of the student but rather an alterable state of being that is highly influenced by contextual factors, such as policies ans practices of the school ans family influences. p. 1102

Best Practices in Fostering Student Engagement_Figure1

Éléments méthodologiques

There are other important considerations with this model (p. 1102):

  1. First, these types of engagement are not mutually exclusive but rather are understood as interrelated subtypes of the larger engagement construct.
  2. A second consideration concerns the interaction of student engagement and context over time ans the mediating role of engagement.


– (malheureusement, je n’ai pas eu accès au texte entier en ligne)

Références citées dans cette fiche

Finn (1989) : « His definition of engagement consisted of involvement/participation, belonging or connectedness, ans commitment or valuing components. » p. 1000

Check & Connect : The Check & Connect model was designed to promote student engagement through relationship building, problem solving, and persistence.

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